Tag Archives: John Henry Newman

In defense of an irony

Owen Chadwick has a remark about John Henry Newman that’s left a lasting impression on me, namely, “Newman was an intellectual who distrusted the intellect.” There’s something about this characterization I find highly suggestive. It works not only as a description of how Newman proceeded in theology, but also as a proposal for how much weight we should accord certain kinds of considerations in our theological deliberations today. If you’re curious about what it might look like to take this lesson from Newman to heart, I’d suggest you need not look any farther than the work of Nicholas Lash, himself a Newman scholar. (I’ve tried gesturing to this same point before here). We’d be misinterpreting Newman and Lash if we take them to be advocating for a species of anti-intellectualism, some sort of principled refusal to submit their work to the review of their peers. Quite to the contrary, both theologians are examples of exceptional intellects at work on their craft. What they’re actually engaged in is an effort to overturn reigning prejudices favoring the primacy of the intellect in our understanding of religion.

Fortunately Newman and Lash aren’t alone in this endeavor. We can number other theologians among their ranks. Consider the following passage from Kathryn Tanner:

in the early 1980s […] the main worries of both theologians and philosophers of religion were methodological in nature: to justify religious thought, either by showing how it met the usual standards of meaning, intelligibility and truth endorsed by other disciplines, or (the preferred tactic of Frei and Lindbeck) by showing, with an ironic display of academic rigor, why no such justification was necessary. (Shaping a Theological Mind, Ed. Darren Marks, Ashgate, 2008, 115)

Tanner notes the irony of the rigor Frei and Lindbeck had to exert in order to make the case that university-wide criteria of accountability would be misplaced in theology. Whatever Tanner’s evaluation of their efforts, I’d say Frei and Lindbeck were on the right track. Even when (maybe even especially when) one is setting out to delimit the vocation of humanity’s rational powers, one must do so as thoughtfully, intelligently, as one can, if the critique is to have any chance of sticking. After all, it’s no disservice to reason to apprehend the limits of the intellect’s competencies by way of reasoned appraisal.

The Primacy of Practice in Nicholas Lash

The truth of christian ‘theory’ is too closely bound up with the quality of christian ‘practice’ for it to be possible to press the necessary distinction between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ to the point where they can be handled as fundamentally separate issues. In 1837 Newman claimed that ‘Action is the criterion of true faith.’ His principle that ‘The safeguard of Faith is a right state of heart’ applies, not only to the individual, but to the church as a whole. In order to assess the ‘truth,’ or faithfulness of a particular development of christian doctrine, it will be insufficient to ascertain that the development is a theoretically justifiable interpretation or application of new testament teaching. It will also be necessary to ask whether the development in question expresses or embodies a style of life, an ethical response, which is in conformity with the style of life commanded or recommended by the gospel.

from Change in Focus, (Sheed&Ward, 1973), 102-3.